Greece’s Golden Dawn and Hungary’s Jobbik have both been termed neo-Nazi parties by the World Jewish Congress.
The European Union’s Fundamental Rights Agency issued a series of recommendations last week aimed at stemming the “mainstreaming of elements of extremist ideology in political and public discourse” throughout the continent, particularly in Greece and Hungary.
The group specifically voiced concern over the “substantial parliamentary representation of parties that use paramilitary tactics or are closely associated with paramilitary groups and use extremist rhetoric to target irregular migrants in Greece, and the Roma and Jews in Hungary.”
The human rights watchdog cited several “barriers” to countering the rise in xenophobia, including, in the case of Greece, problematic record-keeping in the case of hate crimes and “no evidence” of a systematic effort to deal with racism. In Hungary, a strict interpretation of what constitutes incitement to hatred has set a high legal bar for prosecution, which has hindered efforts to curb extremism.
Record-keeping in Hungary is also problematic, the agency alleged. However, the FRA continued, both countries have made significant efforts to rectify these shortcomings.
“All public officials, representatives of human rights bodies and civil society organizations with whom FRA met expressed a strong interest and willingness to engage in multi–agency partnerships and outlined some concrete obstacles and barriers that should be resolved,” the group said in regard to Greece. Moreover, recent legal and police efforts aimed at shutting down the ultra-nationalist Golden Dawn party elicited praise for Athens from the continental group, including Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras’s promise to “deracinate” the party.
Such partnerships, the FRA believes, are key in combating racism and xenophobia.